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The historical guilds of Europe have long been criticized for cartelizing trade and seizing monopolistic powers. And new research suggests the situation was very similar in Africa as well.
Even with November's small rise, money supply growth is far below the unprecedented highs experienced during the past two years. This points to a weakening economy.
The Federal Reserve now owns $2.6 trillion in mortgages. That means about 24 percent of all outstanding residential mortgages in this whole big country reside in the central bank.
Turkey's President Erdoğan faces a series of crises as the lira collapses and the state's central bank steps in to clean up the mess.
Economics is haunted by more fallacies than any other study known to man. This is no accident.
Suppose some people don't like the services furnished by a "minimal state." Don't these people have the right to establish their own services to compete with the minimal state?
The original "leftists" wanted to abolish government regulation and controls. The rightists were the old control-freak authoritarians. But then the Jacobins hijacked the Left.