What exchanges take place, and which do not, is affected by how markets are regulated. Black markets and regulated markets have different outcomes than free markets.
Protectionism and Free Trade
Today's tariff policy relies on the fanciful idea that politicians can pull the right levers to make the economy more efficient or more just. As always, the idea is based on fantasy.
Governments fund and regulates the overwhelming majority of post-med-school residencies. Not surprisingly, there is now a shortage in residency positions. And government refuses to allow for greater freedom in licensing foreign doctors.
The FedMoney and BanksMoney and Banking
The movement for alternative money is the result of the history of government monetary mismanagement.
What makes restitution work well in Japan is that private individuals and groups are much more responsible for controlling crime.
Bureaucracy and Regulation
In a city with rapidly rising housing needs, there is really only one way to keep housing prices stable or falling: produce a lot of housing.
Rent controls are a recipe for less housing, and unaffordable rents. At least for most people.