The year 1898 was a landmark in American history. It was the year America went to war with Spain—our first engagement with a foreign enemy in the dawning age of modern warfare. Aside from a few scant periods of retrenchment, we have been embroiled in foreign politics ever since.
The role of commercial banks in money creation is made more clear by the fact the Fed is primarily interested in creating demand deposits rather than cash. This creates a larger foundation on which commercial banks can pyramid a multiple creation of bank deposits, or "checkbook money."
Mathematics enjoys the prestige of being truly “scientific,” but it is difficult to mathematize the messy and fuzzy uncertainties and inevitable errors of real world entrepreneurship and human actions.