When the government created public police forces one hundred years ago, they often relied on torture to extract confessions. But now they have new methods: threatening to pile on new charges until the defendant takes a plea agreement.
The year 1898 was a landmark in American history. It was the year America went to war with Spain—our first engagement with a foreign enemy in the dawning age of modern warfare. Aside from a few scant periods of retrenchment, we have been embroiled in foreign politics ever since.
The role of commercial banks in money creation is made more clear by the fact the Fed is primarily interested in creating demand deposits rather than cash. This creates a larger foundation on which commercial banks can pyramid a multiple creation of bank deposits, or "checkbook money."
Many people are familiar with Eugen von Bőhm-Bawerk's damning critique of Marx, but Philip Wicksteed also took the time to show where Marx had gone wrong and struck his surplus theory of value a fatal blow.