Books / Digital Text
1. The Quality of Monetary Regimes by Philipp Bagus
In this article I* would like to continue in the tradition of Mises, Rothbard, and Salerno to analyze how sound monetary regimes affect the quality of money. The value of money, as of any other good, depends on its usefulness or quality in the eye of its user. Money’s quality can be defined as “the capacity of money, as perceived by actors, to fulfill its main functions, namely to serve as a medium of exchange, as a store of wealth, and as an accounting unit” (Bagus 2009, pp. 22–23). Changes in money’s quality affect the demand for money and, consequently, its purchasing power. The quality of a monetary regime, in turn, may be defined as the capacity of a monetary system to provide an institutional framework for a good medium of exchange, store of wealth, and accounting unit.
While the quality of a monetary system or regime is perceived subjectively by actors, there are several objective characteristics that tend to influence this perception. In a trial and error process actors normally do not base their perceptions of their institutional framework on poor whims, as they suffer the consequences of poor judgment. Guided by the objective qualities of monetary systems, actors tend to benefit as they can hedge against depreciation or gain from appreciation of the currency. They can protect their monetary wealth more efficiently. In this article we will analyze these objective qualities of “good” monetary systems.
Connection Between the Quality of Monetary Regimes and Money’s Purchasing Power
The quality of monetary systems has been neglected in the literature.1 Comparative analyses of monetary systems from an institutional perspective are rare.2 Neither do textbooks delve into the qualities of monetary systems, an exception being White (1999). Rather, monetary policies within the setting of our current fiat money systems are analyzed, sometimes enriched by a narrative of the evolution of some historical monetary regimes, yet without providing a comparison of them. The neglect of a comparison might be caused by the belief that we have found the best monetary system. Fiat monetary systems are controlled by a central bank and can be manipulated to provide a supposedly perfect money fulfilling its functions as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account. Moreover, qualities of monetary regimes are hardly measurable or usable in econometric analysis which makes the question unattractive for modern econometric research. Recently, the financial crisis has led to doubts about the set up of the financial system and the monetary system in particular, which makes a comparative analysis of the monetary system timely.
The quality of monetary systems influences the demand for money and, thereby, money’s purchasing power. While much emphasis has been put on the quantity of money and its influences on money’s purchasing power, money’s quality, and the quality of monetary systems are equally important for money’s price, if not more so. In fact, money’s quantity may be interpreted as one of several characteristics that determine money’s quality and the likelihood and capacity of monetary regimes to increase or decrease money’s quantity is one of the important characteristics of the quality of a monetary regime.
Changes in monetary systems may lead to sudden changes in money’s quality and purchasing power. More specifically, a change in the monetary regime may lead to a pronounced change in the valuation of money in relation to other goods. Imagine that actors regard the new monetary system as a worse provider of a medium of exchange, store of wealth, and accounting unit than the preceding system. Actors value money less intensely with respect to other goods. This may be illustrated by an example of an individual’s value scale before and after the regime changes.
Value scale before regime change
20th 5th $10 bill
21st Hamburger meal
22nd 6th $10 bill
24th 7th $10 bill
25th Bottle red wine
26th Bottle white wine
In our example our person having seven $10 bills in his pocket would not buy wine priced at $10. However, she would give up one $10 bill for a cheeseburger that she values higher than the 7th bill she owns. She would also spend the 6th bill for the hamburger meal valued higher. Let us look at the value scale of the regime change by which the perception of money’s quality falls. The new monetary regime is in the eyes of actors providing a worse medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account than the preceding regime.
Value scale after regime change
20th Hamburger meal
22nd Bottle red win
23rd 5th $10
24th Bottle white wine 25th
26th 7th $10
We see that goods tend now to be ranked higher on the value scale relative to money units than before.3 After the change, the person would give $10 for a bottle of white wine. She would also buy red wine, cheeseburger, or a hamburger meal with $10. The prices of these good would tend to increase. Without any increase in the quantity of money, money is valued less in comparison to goods due to the qualitative deterioration of the monetary regime. Money’s purchasing power decreases. Brisk changes in purchasing power may be caused by a change in monetary regime. This gives us reason to analyze the quality of different monetary regimes and how changes to them influence their quality.
Qualities of Monetary Regimes
Monetary regimes provide a framework within which money fulfills its functions. As the unit of account function is fulfilled by nearly all monetary systems equally well and it is impaired only in extreme situations, we will concentrate of the characteristics of good medium of exchange and store of value.4
We will begin with the characteristics of a good medium of exchange and the influence on it by a monetary regime. A good medium of exchange has low storage and transportation costs. Other properties are easy handling, durability, divisibility, resistance to tarnish, homogeneity, and ease in recognition. These properties hardly change today as paper-based fiat standards have eased the physical usability of the monetary unit, as well as the costs to provide it. In commodity standards these qualities may change when society switches from one commodity to the other. For instance, a change from a silver to a gold standard may imply an increase in the quality of money as gold is more durable than silver, which suffers from oxidization. A more relevant property of a medium of exchange is the number of users. More users imply more demand for the medium of exchange. As more people accept it in trade, the medium of exchange is more useful. Changes in monetary systems may increase the number of users and thereby the quality of the money. For instance, at the end of the nineteenth century ever more countries left their silver standards to adopt the gold standard. The increased use of gold as a currency increased its quality as money. Similarly a switch from Germany’s Deutsche mark to the more widely used Euro or from national fiat currencies to a world fiat money increases the quality of money as a medium of exchange. The tendency of an increase in the quality of money as a medium of exchange is, however, counteracted by possible decreases in its functionality as a store of value.
Ironically, maybe the most important characteristic for a medium of exchange is the existence of ample non-monetary demand for the money as either a consumer good or a factor of production. The demand for other, non-monetary purposes assures that there exist unsatisfied wants which are intense and permanent (Menger 1892, p. 5). The non-monetary demand serves as “insurance” for the money holder as it stabilizes its value due the constant demand.5 If the money is demonetized, in the worst case scenario, by the government or because people turn to another medium of exchange, it will still retain its use value. A money with a very low or no non-monetary demand loses almost all its value in a demonetization. Its value is totally dependent on the monetary demand for the good and the confidence in it. Its value tends to be more volatile than the value of a money that has a stabilizing non-monetary demand. If the insurance breaks away even without any change or expected change in money’s quantity, its quality is reduced, leading to a tendency for its purchasing power to decrease. This is so, because the risk of demonetization and a complete loss of value for money holders without a non-monetary demand insurance is greater than for a monetary unit with a use value. Without this insurance, the demand for money tends to fall, leading to a fall in purchasing power. Therefore, if there is a switch from a monetary regime with ample non-monetary demand such as a gold standard to a monetary regime without a relevant non-monetary demand such as a fiat money standard, the quality of the money regime is reduced, independent of (expected) quantity changes.
The store of value function is another important function of money. There are several characteristics of a good store of wealth.
One of its most important characteristics is the possibility of increases in its quantity. Different monetary regimes allow for different mechanisms to increase the quantity of money, thereby influencing money’s quality. Thus, monetary systems may set strict and less strict limits for increases in the money supply. A switch from a monetary system that strictly limits the quantity of money and its possible increases to a monetary system that makes increases in the money supply more likely and less predictable implies a deterioration of the quality of money.
For the quality of the monetary regime the stability of the financial system it fosters is also important. There are monetary regimes that are more prone to generate business cycles, over-indebtedness and illiquidity than other regimes. Business cycles, over-indebtedness and illiquidity may provoke interventions and bailouts on part of the government or monetary authorities. In the wake of the bailouts the quantity of money is often increased, or even the quality of the monetary system is diluted. For instance, redemption into specie might be suspended or a new monetary order may emerge (e.g., the introduction of a world fiat money). Consequently, money’s quality is affected negatively by a change toward a more instable monetary system.
The probability of demonetization is a related factor influencing money’s quality. Some monetary systems are more prone to demonetization than others. Systems that come along with an instable financial sector may lead to collapse or public bailouts that endanger the confidence in the monetary unit. Another factor that affects money as a store of value is the potential for general manipulation by the government. Interventions by the government often decrease the quality of money in its own favor by increases in money’s quantity or through a deterioration in the reserves backing it. A government could, for instance, confiscate the gold reserves of its fiat currency to pay for expenditures thereby decreasing the quality of money. Some systems are less prone to government intervention than others where the government has a stronger foothold in the system.6 The more independent a monetary regime is from the government, the higher is the quality of the currency. A switch to a monetary system more dependent or open to interventions by a government means a deterioration of money’s quality.
A 100 Percent and Free Gold Standard
I will now analyze the quality of money in different monetary regimes.7 I will start with the highest quality monetary regime and work my way downward to systems of lower quality. In a 100 percent gold standard, only gold (or 100 percent backed gold certificates) is money and banks hold 100 percent reserves for their demand deposits. The following analysis applies mutatis mutandis to other 100 percent commodity standards such as a 100 percent silver standard.8 I picked the example of gold out for two reasons: the historic importance of the gold standard and its unique qualities.
A 100 percent and free gold standard offers all the qualities of good money. Gold has a relatively high value in a small size, thus reducing storage and transportation costs. It is easy to handle in exchange and easily divisible. It is homogenous. Its grade is easy recognizable and it is resistant to tarnish. There exists a tremendous non-monetary demand for gold all over the world. Gold is also relatively hoardable as it can be bought and sold in large amounts without losses. Moreover, the production costs of gold are very high, as is the existing gold stock. Anyone can mint coins; the government has no foothold in the monetary system. Gold is, thus, difficult to manipulate by governments. Only by outright coin clipping or by changing the monetary regime itself can the government manipulate gold. Furthermore, these two kinds of gold manipulations can face strong resistance, as they are highly visible when gold is in the hands of the citizenry.
In addition, in a 100 percent gold standard there is unlimited and unconditional redemption. The banking system is per definitionem liquid; it cannot be brought down by a bank run, as there are 100 percent reserves. The economy and the government are less likely to have negative effects on the quality of money than in other regimes. This is so, because a 100 percent gold standard strengthens the economy and puts limits on the spending of government. As there is by definition no credit expansion and no artificial reduction of interest rates, there is no credit created business cycle. And as taxation is unpopular and government debt cannot be monetized but has to be paid out of taxes, government has to be fiscally more responsible. The tendency toward slowly falling prices in such a system when economic growth exceeds increases in gold production makes debts less attractive.9 Overindebtedness is therefore quite unlikely.
In a free 100 percent gold standard there exists also monetary competition. No one imposes gold as money and other monies can compete freely with it. The competition in the production of money ensures the quality of money. Bad money is pushed out of the market by good money (Hayek 1978, pp. 1–3).10 Only the money that best fulfills and keeps fulfilling the function as unit of account, storage of wealth and a medium of exchange prevails under free competition. There is no central bank, no monetary monopoly or legal tender laws. Hence, there will be a discovery process for the best currency. Different issuers in a trial and error process compete in offering currencies to their customers. Inefficient producers of money disappear. Only the efficient producers of money that produce money in a quantity and quality fitting consumers’ wishes best will survive. As money users usually prefer a stable currency, there will be a competitive process toward stable currencies.
Lastly, the monetary system tends to be stable. 100 percent reserves on demand deposits ensure that no bank runs on demand deposits will lead to a banking crisis. Moreover, there are harsh limits to other types of maturity mismatching, i.e., borrowing short and lending long (Bagus 2010; Bagus and Howden 2010). Borrowing short and lending long is a very risky business. Competitors, by assuming short-term debts and not rolling over the debt, might drive banks into bankruptcy. Speculators may also short bank stocks and try to instigate a run on the short-term liabilities of banks. Customers will attend those banks that limit this risky behavior. In short, in a free market maturity mismatching is strictly limited and there is no reason why banks would systematically err about the amount of short-term renewable savings. More importantly, the promoters of excessive maturity mismatching such as government guarantees for banks are limited, or absent, as there is no central bank that could roll over short-term debts nor credit expansion increasing constantly the money supply making a roll-over of short-term debts easier. The financial system in a 100 percent gold standard is, therefore, very stable. The chance that governments will be tempted to bailout the financial system diluting the value of money or the monetary regime is reduced.
Fractional Gold Standards
I will now analyze fractional reserve gold standards with different properties. I will not explore every theoretical possibility but will concentrate on the historical monetary regimes. The first fractional reserve standard is a gold coin standard.11 In a gold coin standard banks hold fractional reserves and gold coins are in circulation. A gold coin standard contains the same properties in regard to its functions as a medium of exchange as a 100 percent gold standard. Gold is not perishable, homogeneous, has a great value in a small bulk, etc.
The main difference concerning the quality of the money, though, comes with money’s function as a store of wealth. In a gold coin standard, money is easier to manipulate for governments than in a 100 percent gold standard, as the government typically holds the monopoly of the mint. In addition, banks are allowed to produce fiduciary media, i.e., money substitutes not backed by gold. The banking system does not necessarily have to hold 100 percent reserves, as credit expansion is possible. Credit expansion, by causing business cycles, weakens the economy and helps to monetize government debts. In a recession, there is the danger of government bailouts diluting money’s value. Recessions may also be used as a pretext to increase government’s foothold in the economy, for instance by installing a central bank. If a central bank is installed, the quality of money falls even more, as this agency is a foothold of the government into the monetary system that is likely to reduce the quality of money further.
Moreover, credit expansion serves as a promoter of maturity mismatching, i.e., borrowing short and lending long. In the case of roll over problems of short-term debts, banks may use their own deposits as a substitute for financing. In addition, credit expansion tends to increase the money supply which reduces the risk of maturity mismatching. The financial system becomes more unstable by the tendency for excessive maturity mismatching. This makes a government bailout implying a deterioration of the money standard more likely.
Furthermore, an important difference of a fractional gold standard and a 100 percent gold standard is the effect of increases in the quantity of money on its quality. When in a 100 percent gold standard new gold is mined, this gold naturally is of the same quality as the old money. The quality does not deteriorate. Yet, when in a fractional gold standard, the amount of fiduciary media, i.e., paper money, increases, the quality of the currency decreases, as there are less gold reserves per monetary unit. The reserve ratio shrinks and the average backing of the currency deteriorates.
Gold Bullion Standard
The gold bullion standard tends to emerge from a gold coin standard. When in a gold coin standard, credit expansion creates recurrent banking crisis, and banks tend to press for the installation of a lender of last resort, the central bank. At the same time, banks are interested in a reduction of coins in circulation which is realized in a gold bullion standard, where the government does not mint coins. Typically, the gold reserves are centralized in a central bank. The currency is backed by gold bullion and the reserves centralized in a central bank. The currency can be exchanged against bullion at a fixed rate. Gold coins likely disappear from circulation.
In such a system the quality of money is reduced vis-à-vis a gold coin standard. It is more difficult to hoard gold as only bullion can be exchanged against currency. Due to the difficulties of redeeming and transporting bullion, less currency will be redeemed into gold and gold will practically disappear from day-to-day transactions. Consequently, banks can reduce their gold reserves. This allows for greater credit expansion, which, via business cycles, weakens the economy and helps to monetize government debt. As banks tend to reduce their reserves, they become more illiquid. Greater credit expansion and the introduction of a central bank reduce also the risk of maturity mismatching. Excessive maturity mismatching adds to the instability of the financial system. The higher probability of bailouts and further denigration of the regime deteriorates the quality of the currency.
As there is a lower amount of gold in the hands of the public it is easier for the government to suspend redemption altogether without leading to a double standard and facing the resistance of people to hand over their gold. Thus, the government can manipulate the money and deteriorate the money standard easier.
Gold Exchange Standard
The next step down in the quality of monetary standards is a gold exchange standard. A gold exchange standard is a fixed exchange rate system like the Bretton Woods system. Currencies are pegged at a fixed rate with a main currency that can be redeemed into gold bullion. Only central banks can redeem one currency into gold bullion through the main central bank which was the case during the Bretton Woods era with the Federal Reserve System.
A gold exchange standard leads to a further centralization of gold reserves and allows the banking system outside the main country to expand credit on top of the main currency. The main banking system also is likely to use its privileged position in order to expand credit. The system sows the seeds of its own collapse if the main country expands credit, thus imposing a cost on the rest. The exploitation of this position will then meet the resistance of the other countries who start to demand redemption as happened in the case of Bretton Woods, when the French government demanded payment in gold.
As a consequence of a higher capacity for credit expansion, business cycles will become more volatile, harming the economy. In addition, monetization of debt on a larger scale becomes possible. Maturity mismatching increases and the financial system grows more unstable increasing the chance of diluting bailouts. The tendency toward price inflation also increases, which in turn incentivizes people to take on debts. The population’s day-to-day connection with gold becomes looser and less resistance will be felt when the connection is cut by the government altogether.
It should be pointed out that becoming the main currency in a gold exchange standard may in some sense increase the quality of this main currency. It is very profitable to be an international reserve central bank (Rittershausen 1962, p. 408). Other central banks hold reserves of the main currency at very low interest rates. Other central banks must fear devaluations that would imply losses in their assets. When a currency becomes the main currency it implies therefore an increase in its quality. Other economic agents are more likely to accept and hold this currency.
Within these fractional reserve standards we may distinguish between systems where the unit of account and medium of exchange are separated and those where they coincide. In systems where unit of account and medium of exchange are separated, people calculate in a currency such as gold but pay also with another medium of exchange such as bank notes or deposits. These notes and deposits may have a discount in relation to payments in specie. Therefore, a credit expansion may lead to a higher discount leaving unharmed the integrity of the gold currency. Prices denominated in bank notes increase but not denominated in specie. If, on the other hand, bank notes and deposits have to be accepted at par due to legal tender laws, the quality of the system decreases. Credit expansion in this case cannot lead to a discount anymore but deteriorates the quality of specie as prices denominated in gold increase.
Fiat Paper Money Standard
A brisk change in the quality of the monetary regime occurs when redemption is finally suspended altogether leading to a fiat paper currency. In a fiat paper money standard as the world has been on since 1971, not even central banks are able to redeem the currency against bullion. There is no guarantee anymore to receive any specific amount of gold for the currency. Hence, the quality of the money has declined.12
There is a wide divide between redeemable claims to gold as in the gold standards discussed above and unredeemable paper money. Unredeemable paper money presents a claim on something that is not specified. Fiat paper money fluctuates in value according to the holder’s belief of what the fiat money will be able to purchase. This estimation may fall very low and easily to zero. It is completely dependent on trust. If trust evaporates its value may well fall to zero, without dramatic changes in the money’s quantity.
The capacity of irredeemable paper money to serve as a store of wealth is dominated by this uncertainty. Nothing of this sort happens with a (convertible) money certificate that, for instance, can be exchanged at any moment against gold. As Rist (1966, p. 200) summarizes: “In short, convertibility is not a mere device for limiting quantity; convertibility gives notes legal and economic qualities which paper money does not possess, and which are independent of quantity.” Therefore, when the redemption of bank notes and deposits in a gold standard is suspended, the quality of money, from one second to the next, is reduced (independently from what might happen to money’s quantity).
Once redemption is suspended, there is no safety net for the value of the currency to fall back to. Money is not connected any longer with the industrial demand for gold. The “insurance” of a strong industrial demand for the money holder is gone.13
Production costs of new paper money are very low, increasing the likelihood of increases in the money supply. Moreover, as redemption is suspended, the last control against government manipulation is gone. The floodgates for governmental manipulation of the money supply are open. Now the only restriction for government is its own will to put a limit on the production of additional money. These limits are typically formalized through the statutes and mandates of the central bank.
As a central bank can print an unlimited amount of money and bail out banks, moral hazard ensues. Maturity mismatching increases and reserve ratios are reduced. Credit expansion leads to more volatile business cycles harming the economy. The monetization of government debts by using the printing press has become easier. The financial system becomes even more fragile than before. Government bailouts become more likely and deteriorate the quality of money. As a consequence, money practically loses its function as a good store of wealth. Price inflation becomes a feature of everyday life. As people become accustomed to increasing prices, they start to incur more debt. Both the indebtedness and fragility of the economy increase. Thus, at the instant the monetary system is deteriorated to fiat paper money system, the quality of money declines sharply.
Switching Monetary Regimes and Money’s Purchasing Power
Changes in the quality of money can be made within a certain monetary regime and by changing the monetary regime. Any move up the qualitative ladder explained above from the bottom to the top, i.e., from a fiat paper money, to a gold exchange standard, to a gold bullion standard, to a gold coin standard to a 100 percent free gold standard implies a substantial improvement in quality. Any move down the qualitative ladder implies a deterioration of the quality of money and a tendency for price inflation. Downward movements have been more common in history. Especially in preparation of or during war efforts, monetary regimes were often changed for the worse (Rittershausen 1962, p. 366).
Improvements in monetary regimes have occurred in history. For instance, resumptions of specie payments, i.e., a change from a fiat paper money to some variant of a gold standard have occurred in history at various times; especially when specie payment was suspended during war and later resumed. Examples are the resumption of specie payment in Great Britain after the Napoleonic Wars and after World War I, as well as the resumption of specie payment after the U.S. Civil War in 1879. When it is expected that specie payment will be resumed, people expect the quality of money to increase and money’s price can rise immediately. This is probably one cause of the price deflation in the U.S. before the resumption of specie payment in 1879 (Bagus 2015). Another example is Peel’s Bank Act of 1844 which prohibited the issue of unbacked bank notes. The failure of Peel’s Bank Act was to not include bank deposits in the provision. The introduction of a 100 percent reserve ratio for demand deposits as well, would have increased the quality of the monetary regime strongly.
In general, however, the evolution has been downward from gold standards of a higher quality to gold standards of a lower quality and finally to fiat money standards. In fact, once we step down from a 100 percent gold standard, the seeds are sown for a progressive deterioration of the money regime. Government gets a foothold in the monetary system. Credit expansion by the central bank lead to excessive maturity mismatching, overindebtedness, and financial instability. In the crisis caused by these monetary regimes, bailouts tend to occur leading to higher government debts which are later monetized. In theses crises the regime is also often denigrated. For instance, redemption of specie payments may be suspended in a banking crisis.
Beside money’s quantity also its quality influences its purchasing power. In this paper we have analyzed the quality of monetary regimes which consists in providing an institutional framework for a good medium of exchange, store of value and medium of account. Changes in monetary regimes may lead to substantial changes in money’s quality and thereby affect money’s demand and purchasing power. The highest quality regime contains a 100 percent gold standard. Fractional-reserve gold standards contain the seeds of their own deterioration, leading via credit expansion to economic and banking crisis. Via progressive government intervention and centralization of reserves a gold coin standard deteriorates into a gold bullion standard and a gold exchange standard.
The switch from a gold exchange standard to a fiat paper standard is a watershed. There is no non-monetary demand for the money unit anymore. Its value is solely maintained by trust and confidence while the insurance of an ample non-monetary demand has vanished. Government and central banking control monetary affairs totally. Recurrent recessions and bailouts of the financial system become likely, deteriorating the quality of money. Future research may focus more on the qualities of different monetary regimes and how their switch affects the quality of money and also economic growth. A switch to a higher quality regime of money in a recession may positively affect confidence and economic growth.
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- *. Philipp Bagus is professor of economics in the Department of Applied Economics I at Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain. Professor Bagus was a summer research fellow in 2006 and 2009. This chapter is an extension of the theoretical perspective developed in the article “The Quality of Money,” for which the he received very valuable comments by Professor Salerno. The author wishes to thank David Howden for excellent comments on the present article. Joseph T. Salerno has not only been a very important mentor and friend for me. With his humor, positive attitude, and generous support he is a precious asset for Mises Institute summer fellows such as I was for two years. Thank you, Joe. With his articulate, intransigent and courageous support of sound money, he is an invaluable asset for the Austrian school. He not only always stands up to defend the theoretical advances of Mises and Rothbard, he also has added to the corpus of Austrian theory.
- 1. Bagus (2009) discusses the quality of money in general. Bagus and Schiml (2009, 2010) and Bagus and Howden (2009a, 2009b) analyze the quality of the currency unit through the central bank’s balance sheet. Bagus and Howden (2011) point out that Iceland’s central bank adopted an explicit lender of last resort function that deteriorated the quality of Iceland’s monetary regime.
- 2. The mainstream focuses narrowly on the aspect of central bank independence and mostly neglects all other aspects.
- 3. Salerno (2006, p. 52) refers in this context to “the relative rankings of goods and of money among market participants.” This relative ranking is immediately and potentially strongly affected by changes in monetary regimes.
- 4. As Röpke states, referring to the German 1922–1923 hyperinflation (1954, p. 121), money’s functions often disappear in a certain order. First, money ceases to be used as storage of wealth, when actors start to think that it continuously will lose value. Second, when the fluctuations of the value of money increase and money loses its value faster, money loses its function as a unit of account. People started to calculate in other units. In 1923, they started to calculate in gold and even the German government calculated its taxes in gold mark. The last function that is lost in a hyperinflation is the function as medium of exchange. People progressively started to use foreign exchange to transact (Bresciani-Turroni 1968, p. 89). In November 1923, the mark was completely abandoned as a medium of exchange.
- 5. The main disadvantage of Bitcoin is that it virtually lacks such an “insurance.”
- 6. Herbener (2002, p. 11) points out that the government is likely to use those footholds to switch to ever more interventionary monetary regimes: Given any foothold in monetary affairs, the state would always move step by step to an inflationary monetary regime, the exercise of which would eventually cripple, if not destroy, the market itself. Given the power to coin gold, the state would come to suppress the coinage of private mints by waiving its mintage fee. Once securely dominant as a money producer, it would make its coins legal tender, leading to the possibility of seigniorage from debasement. Likewise, if the state had the power to issue money substitutes, it would suppress the issue by private banks by waiving the printing or accounting fees. Once securely dominant as a money substitute producer, the state would rescind redemption to capture the revenue from inflating the stock of its, now, fiat paper money.
- 7. For an analysis of the devolution of monetary systems see also Hoppe’s (1994) analysis. Hoppe shows how money and credit deteriorates as a result of government intervention. Rittershausen (1962, p. 334) and Veit (1969, p. 88) offer classifications of monetary regimes. Rittershausen focuses on the legal tender and emphasizes that systems were beside specie also bank liabilities are legal tender diminish the quality of the currency. His classification is similar to mine.
- 8. Similary, gold and silver may be in use simultaneously.
- 9. For an analysis of growth deflation see Salerno (2003).
- 10. For the advantages of currency competition see Klein (1974) and Vaubel (1977, 1988).
- 11. Again, the analysis applies mutatis mutandis to other fractional reserve commodity standards.
- 12. The fall in the quality of money helps to explain historical price inflations. When the U.S. went off the gold standard in March 1933, wholesale price soared 14 percent over 1933 and 31 percent by 1937. When the U.S. went off the gold reserve standard (the Bretton Woods system) in August 1971, wholesale price increased 4.35 percent during the rest of the year, more than 13 percent between 1972 and 1973, and over 34 percent between 1972 and 1974 (Hazlitt 1978, p. 76).
- 13. One might argue that “de facto” redemption, i.e., interventions of the central bank selling its assets are an insurance. However, there is no legal insurance or security whatsoever that central banks will intervene at the point of time the money holder wants.