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In postwar Germany and Austria, a movement has been steadily gaining significance in politics and the social sciences that can best be described as Anti-Marxism.1 Occa­sionally its followers also use this label.* Their point of departure, their mode of thinking and fighting, and their goals are by no means uniform. The principal tie that unites them is their declaration of hostility toward Marxism. Mind you, they are not attacking socialism, but Marxism, which they reproach for not being the right kind of socialism, for not being the one that is true and desirable. It would also be a serious mistake to assert, as do the noisy Social-Democrat and Communist party literati, that this Anti-Marxism approves of or in any way defends capitalism and private property in the means of production. No matter what train of thought it may pursue, it is no less anticapitalistic than Marxist.

Only scientific Anti-Marxism is discussed in what fol­lows. The Anti-Marxism of practical politics will be touched upon only insofar as it is absolutely essential for an under­standing of the intellectual movement.

  • 1. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv [Archives for world economy], vol. 21, 1925.
  • *. Editor’s note: In Germany they later came to call themselves National Socialists, or Nazis.
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