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Advancing Austrian Economics, Liberty, and Peace

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LUDWIG VON MISES (1881-1973) 
Chronological Bibliography

1950

ARTICLES:

A Reading List for the Alert Citizen. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education, 1950.

"Economic Aspects of the Pension Problem." The Commercial and Financial Chronicle. 171:4884(February 23, 1950)793(1)ff. Argues against governmental provision of social security. The usual pension plans are so extensive that they can only be maintained by inflationary finance. Compulsory pensions increase the demand for medical services and decrease labor productivity. Included in Planning for Freedom.

"The Alleged Injustice of Capitalism." Faith and Freedom. 1:7(June 1950)5-8. Included as Part 3, Chapter 4, in The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality. Reprinted in Reflections on faith and Freedom. Los Angeles: Spiritual Mobilization, 1952. 39-45.

"The Idea of Liberty is Western." American Affairs. 12(October 1950)207-11. Included as Chapter 4, Sections 4 & 5 in The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality. Included in Money, Method, and the Market Process.

"Lord Keynes and Say's Law." The Freeman. New York, 1:3(October 30, 1950)83-85. Criticizes Keynes for misunderstanding and denying Say's Law (the supply of one good is the demand for other goods). This denial is at the basis of Keynesian fallacies. Included in Planning for Freedom. Reprinted in The Critics of Keynesian Economics, Henry Hazlitt, ed. Princeton, N.Y.: Van Nostrand, 1960. 315-21.

"The Economics of War." Chapter XXXIV of Human Action published in booklet form by Christian Economics. New York, 1950. 

Abridgement of Chapter in Plain Talk. 4:1(October 1949)39-44.
Abridged version also in Ideas on Liberty. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education. No. 3(Novermer 1955)59-65;
reprinted in Essays on Liberty,III. (Foundation for Economic Education, 1958)385-96; also in Free Trade: The Necessary Foundation for World Peace, Joan Kennedy Taylor, ed. (Foundation for Economic Education, 1986. 77-83.
Spanish translation of excerpt, "Las Pol?ticas de la Paz" [The Politics of Peace]. Resumen, Suplemento Mensual. Mexico. No. 14(February 1967)41.

 

OTHER:

"Benjamin M. Anderson Challenges the Philosophy of the Pseudo-Progressives." Plain talk. 4:5(February 1950)51-58. Praises the work of B. M. Anderson, Economics and the Public Welfare, for its analysis of the cause of the 1929 Depression and for its detailed criticism of the New Deal. Anderson, long the chief economist of the Chase National Bank, was one of the first to recognize the importance of Mises's Theory of Money and Credit. Included in Planning for Freedom.Included in Plain Talk: An Anthology from the Leading Anti-Communist Magazine of the 40s. Isaac Don Levine, ed.(New Rochelle: Arlington House, 1976)375-79.

"Middle-of-the-Road Policy Leads to Socialism." The Commercial and Financial Chronicle. 171:4904(May 4, 1950)1ff. Very important essay. Argues that there is no third ground between the free market and full socialism. Interventionist measures by their nature cannot work. Their supporters must either abandon them or add further controls. Eventually this will result in full state control of the economy. 

Reprinted as a pamphlet: South Holland, Ill: Consumers-Producers Economic Service, January 1951. Included in Planning for Freedom.
Discussed in Faith and Freedom (March 1952).
Reprinted in The Capitalist. Brigham Young University, Young Conservative Club. 2:22(March 17, 1964)1-4.
Reprintd as a booklet: South Holland, Ill: Libertarian Press, 1965. Excerpt: "How Price Control Leads to Socialism." The Freeman. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education. 16:6(June 1966)23-25.
Two long excerpts in Mark Skousen's Playing the Price Controls Game. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1977. 121-24.
French translations of portions of this article plus excerpts from "The Political Chances of Genuine Liberalism." Farmand. Oslo, Norway. February 7, 1951. "La Cha?ne sans Fin des Interventions ?conomiques." Angoisses et Espoires de la Civilisation Occidentale [Despair and Hope for Western Civilization]. Paris: Editions SEDIF. (1952)7-17. Included in L`Informateur (circa January 23, 1975.
Spanish translation in Mercurio (Buenos Aires).
Reprinted from Mercurio: "La Cadena sin Fin de las Intervenciones Econ?micas." Temas Contempor?neos. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales y Econ?micas. 4:46(October 1, 1958).
Spanish translation: "El Camino del Medio Nos Lleva al Socialismo." Bogota, Colombia: Fundaci?n para Estudios sobre la Libertad, n.d.
Spanish translation: "El Intervencionismo Conduce al Socialismo." Tres Mensajes. Buenos Aires: Centro de Difusi?n de la Econom?a Libre, 1959. 7-27.
Reprinted from Argentine translation: "El Intervencionismo Conduce al Socialismo." Temas Contempor?neos. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales y Econ?micas. 8:96(October 15, 1962).
Spanish translation by H?ctor Esteves H: "La Pol?tica del Camino del Centro Conduce al Socialismo." Temas Contempor?neos. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales y Econ?micas. 15:181(November 15, 1969).
Reprinted "El Intervencionismo Conduce al Socialismo." T?picos de Actualidad. Guatemala: Centro de Estudios Econom?co-Sociales. 4:52(January 1, 1963).
Reprinted: "Las Terceras Posiciones Conducen al Socialismo." Guatemala: Camara de comercio de Guatemala. 4(October 1974)86-92.
Spanish translation: "El Camino del Medio Nos Lleva al Socialismo." Bogota, Colombia: Fundaci?n para Estudios sobre la Libertad, (1963?).
Spanish translation by Salvador Abascal Carranza from Libertarian Press edition of Planning for Freedom: "La Pol?tica de Econom?a Mixta Conduce al Socialismo." Mexico: Instituto de la Integraci?n Iberoamericana, January 1983.
Included in Resource Book on Agriculture. Economics in Argumentation. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education, 1986-1987. Section 5.
Included in "Two Essays" with "Liberty and Property." (1988). Foreword by Thomas J. DiLorenzo. Auburn, Ala: Praxeology Press/Ludwig von Mises Institute 1992.

 

1951

ARTICLES:

"Trends Can Change." The Freeman. New York. 1:10(February 12, 1951)300-01. Included in Planning for Freedom. 1952. It is wrong to believe that history is inevitably against the return of classical liberalism. There are no inevitable laws of history, independent of the actions of individuals. 

Spanish translation: "Las Tendencias Pueden Cambiar." Civis. Buenos Aires. 3(December 1954).

 

"The Political Chances of Genuine Liberalism." Farmand. Oslo, Norway. February 7, 1951. Included in Planning for Freedom

French translation of portions of this article, plus excerpts from "Middle-of-the-Road Policy Leads to Socialism," 1950. "La Cha?ne sans Fin des Interventions ?conomiques." Angoisses et Espoires de la Civilisation Occidentale [Despair and Hope for Western Civilization]. Paris: Editions SEDIF. (1952)7-17.
Reprinted in French: L`Informatuer (circa January 23, 1975).
Spanish translation of extract: Mercurio. Buenos Aires; reprinted as "La Cadena Sin Fin de las Intervenciones Econ?micas." Temas Contempor?neos (Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales y Econ?micas). 4:46(October 1, 1958).

 

"Inflation: How Government Generates It and Then Endeavors to Shift Responsibility." New York World Telegram and Sun.(May 7, 1951). Written as guest columnist for Lawrence Fertig. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Inflation [misprinted "Injection" in some editions] Must End in a Slump." New York Journal American. (August 28, 1951). Written as guest columnist for Merryle Rukeyser. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Profit and Loss." Paper presented at the Mont P?lerin meeting, Beauvallon, France, September 1951. "[P]rofit and loss are generated by success or failure in adjusting the course of production activities to the most urgent demand of the consumers." Profits emerge from the difference between the values of factors of production and the value of these factors when they are converted into finished consumers goods: profits disappear as soon as this maladjustment disappears. 

Profit and Loss South Holland, Ill.: Consumers-Producers Economic Service, 1951.
Included in Planning for Freedom, 1952.

 

OTHER:

"True German History." The Freeman. New York. 1:8(January 8, 1951)250-51. Favorable review of Erich Eyck, Bismarck and the German Empire. Very severely critical of Otto von Bismarck for his role in the destruction of the liberal European order. Disagrees with the view that Bismarck still stood for civilization. A review of Erich Eyck's Bismarck and the German Empire (Macmillan, 1950).

"Inflation: An unworkable Fiscal Policy!" The Commercial and Financial Chronicle. 173:5006(April 26, 1951)1ff. Transcript of remarks at University of Chicago Law School Conference on Economics of Mobilization(April 6-8, 1951). 

Reprinted in Defense, Controls and Inflation. Aaron Director, ed.(University of Chicago Press, 1952)107-10,115-16 and 331-34.
Reprinted in New York University Alumni News (November 1962).
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

 

"The symptomatic Keynes." The Freeman. New York. 1:19(June 18, 1951)604-05. Reviews R. F. Harrod, The Life of John Maynard Keynes. Keynes' attitude toward economics and politics was irresponsible. His jesting remark about Georges Clemenceau is characteristic of his superficiality. Reprinted in Christian Economics. New York. 3(August 28, 1951)1,4. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Ludwig von Mises' Seminar" (June 25-July6, 1951). Lecture notes transcribed by Bettina bien, edited by Percy L. Greaves, Jr., not edited by Mises. Irvington, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education, 1951. Multilithed.

"The Trade Cycle." The Freeman. New York. 1:26 (September 24, 1951)828-29. A review of Alvin H. Hansen's Business Cycles and National Income (New York: Norton, 1951). Criticizes Alvin Hansen, Business Cycles and National Income. Hansen, a leading Harvard Keynesian, ignores the correct Austrian theory of the business cycle. He does not understand the role of overexpansion of bank credit in the genesis of the cycle. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

1952

BOOKS:

Planning for Freedom, and Other Essays and Addresses. A collection of articles and addresses (1945-1958), each a brief and fairly easy to understand explanation of some aspect of economics or government intervention. more This compilation includes "Planning for Freedom", "Middle-of-the-road Policy Leads to Socialism." "Laissez Faire or Dictatorship", "Stones into Bread, the Keynesian Miracle", "Lord Keynes and Say's Law", "Inflation and Price Control", "Economic Aspects of the Pension Problem", "Benjamin M. Anderson Challenges the Philosophy of the Pseudo-Progressives", "Profit and Loss", "Economic Teaching at the Universities", "Trends Can Change", and "The Political Chances of Genuine Liberalism". The 1951 essay, "Profit and Loss," makes a real contribution to economic theory. 

First edition. Planning for Freedom, and Other Essays and Addresses. South Holland, Ill.: Libertarian Press, 1952.
Second edition Planning for Freedom, and Other Essays and Addresses. enlarged. Adds "Wages, Unemployment and Inflation". South Holland, Ill.: Libertarian Press, 1962.
Third(memorial) edition: Planning for Freedom, and Twelve Other Essays and Addresses. Enlarged(1962 edition)with various addenda. South Holland, Ill.: Libertarian Press, 1974.
Fourth edition: Planning for Freedom and Sixteen Other Essays and Addresses. Enlarged(1974 edition) plus four more Mises essays and "The Essential von Mises" by Murray N. Rothbard(1973). South Holland, Ill.: Libertarian Press, 1980.
Spanish translation: Planificaci?n para la Libertad y Otros Diecis?is Ensayos y Conferencias. Translated and edited by Alberto Benegas Lynch from the 4th(1980) English edition, with addenda. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Sobre la Libertad, 1986.

 

ARTICLES:

"On the Confiscation of Rent and 'Man's Power to Reason'." Henry George News. 15(February 1952)8.

OTHER:

"India's Economic Problem." The Freeman. New York. 2:8(January 14, 1952) 250-52. A short review of four books: Clare and Harris Wofford, Jr's India Afire (John Day, 1951); George Catlin's In the Path of Mahatma Gandhi (Henry Regnery, 1950); Jawaharlal Nehru's Independence and After: A Collection of Speeches, 1946-1949 (John Day, 1950) and John Ely Burchard, ed. Mid-Century: The Social Implications of Scientific Progress (Technology Press and Wiley, 1950). The poverty of India is caused by an insufficient capital-labor ratio. Only the free market can help. Gandhi's anti-industrialism is criticized.

"Our Leftist Economic Teaching." The Freeman. New York. 2:14(April 7, 1952)425-28. Criticizes a textbook,(Harvard University's Economics Handbook Series), by the Marxist Paul Sweezy for its "amazing" statements. Sweezy takes seriously the Soviet Constitution of 1936. He ignores the significance of the calculation problem. A supposed counter to Sweezy's volume by David McCord Wright also has its faults. Included as "Economic Teaching at Our Universities" in Planning for Freedom. Excerpt in Walter Block, "Farm price controls, African famine and higher education: A combination that doesn't feed people." Grainews (Canada). (July 1983)44.

"Capital Supply and American Prosperity." Address at the University Club of Milwaukee, October 13, 1952. Published by the author. 

Spanish translation: "La Existencia de Capital y la Prosperidad Americana." Tres Mensajes. Buenos Aires: Centro de Difusi?n de la Econom?a Libre.(1959)29-50.
Spanish translation: "La Afluencia de Capital y la Prosperidad Americana." T?picos de Actualidad Guatemala: Centro de Estudios en Econ?mico-Sociales.
Included in the 4th(1980) edition of Planning for Freedom.
Reprinted in Perspectives on Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: Council for a Competitive Economy, n.d.

 

"The Individual in Society." Extracted from Human Action. Published as In Brief Irvington, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education. 8:1(January 1952). Included in Essays on Liberty,I. Foundation for Economic Education, 1952. 76-87. 

Spanish translation Mercurio (Buenos Aires).
Reprinted as "El Individuo en la Sociedad." Temas Contempor?neos (Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales y Econ?micas). 3:37(January 1, 1958).
Reprinted in The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 21:6(June 1971)349-56 and 28:10(October 1978)624-31.
Reprinted in Free Market Economics: A Basic Reader. Bettina Bien Greaves, compiler. Irvington, N.Y.: Foundation for Economic Education. (1975)6-9.
Reprinted in When We Are Free. 1st ed.[not 2nd], Lawerence W. Reed and Dale M. Haywood, eds. Midland, Mich.: Northwood Institute Press, 1981. 79-86.
Dutch translation of excerpt: "Vrijheid door Markteconomie." Burgerrecht. 7:273(October 18, 1952)9.
Excerpt published as "A Page on Freedom." The Freeman. Irvington, N.Y. 35:3. (March 1985)131. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

 

1953

ARTICLES:

"Agony of the Welfare State." The Freeman. New York. 3:16(May 4, 1953)555-57. Reprinted in Free Economic Review (India). (July 1953)5,12. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

"Gold versus Paper." The Freeman. New York. 3:21(July 13, 1953)744-46. 

Spanish translation: "Oro contra Papel." Ideas Sobre la Libertad. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Sobre la Libertad. 1:1(December 1958)49-53.
Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

 

"Monetary Reconstruction." Included in 1953 edition of The Theory of Money and Credit. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953. Here Mises strongly supports a full return to the gold standard, as the only means of avoiding inflation. The operation of the system is virtually "automatic": nothing depends on the decision of particular government administrators. Here, it is important to note, Mises has in mind the "pure" gold standard, rather than the gold exchange standard. Although the views in this essay are entirely consistent with the earlier part of the book, Mises expresses himself in a distinctly more vehement way here.

"Bemerkungen ?ber die mathematische Behandlung national?konomischer Probleme" [Comments about the Mathematical Treatment of Economic Problems], Studium Generale. Berlin-Goettingen-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. 6:11 (December 1953)662-65. Criticizes the use of mathematics in economics. Economics depends upon a grasp of the "inside" of human action. Since action is not subject to deterministic laws knowable to human beings, no constants are available to be subjected to mathematical manipulation. 

English translation by Helena L. Ratzka: "Comments About the Mathematical Treatment of Economic Problems." Journal of Libertarian Studies. Oxford(England): Pergamon Press. 1:2(1977)97-100.

 

OTHER:

"Freedom is Slavery." The Freeman. New York. 3:12(March 9, 1953)410-11. Strongly negative review of Robert L. Hale, Freedom Through Law: Public Control of Private Governing Power (Columbia University Press, 1952). Hale fails to understand the difference between a bureaucracy and a private business, governed by profit and loss. He wrongly assimilates private companies, which have no power of coercion, to the state. 

Spanish translation: "Libertad es Esclavitud." Ideas Sobre la Libertad. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Sobre la Libertad. 1:3(August 1959)15-18.

 

"Economics Too Exciting." The Freeman. New York. 3:17(May 18, 1953)602. Criticizes R. H. Tawney, The Attack and Other Papers (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1953). Tawney, a British socialist, criticized capitalism and praised the medieval guild system as less materialistic. Tawney did not understand economics. Far from being the 'dismal science' as Tawney, echoing Carlyle, believed, correct economics is exciting.

"Free Port of the World." The Freeman. New York. 3:20(June 29, 1953)702. A review of Louis Montes de Oca's collection of essays(Mexico: Informador Econ?mico).

"Why Read Adam Smith Today?" Introduction to Adam Smith's An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations: Selections (1776). Chicago: Henry Regnery, Gateway Edition, (1953)iii-vi. Maintains that Smith is important, not as the inventor of classical economics, but as summarizing the teachings of his predecessors, e.g., the Physiocrats. Included in Economic Freedom and Interventionism.

1954

OTHER:

"Myrdal's Economics." The Freeman. New York. 4:14(April 5, 1954)496. Sharp attack on Gunnar Myrdal's The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1953). Myrdal's use of sociology of knowledge to explain economic theory is irrationalist and a transparent attempt to avoid the anti-socialist conclusions of sound economic analysis. Accuses Myrdal of dropping without acknowledgement a passage from an earlier edition which Mises had criticized in the original German edition of Epistemological Problems of Econmnics.

"Preface" to U.S. edition of W.H. Hutt's The Theory of Collective Bargaining. Glencoe, Ill: The Free Press, 1954. 9-11. Lauds Hutt's analysis of arguments purporting to justify union attempts to raise wages. Hutt's discussion of Sidney and Beatrice Webb is very important.

Letter (May 24, 1954) to Mr. Ren? A. Wormser, General Counsel for the Special Committee to Investigate Tax-Exempt Foundations. Tax Exempt Foundations: Hearings before the Special Committee to Investigate Tax-Exempt Foundations and Comparable Organizations. Part II.945-1241. House of Representatives, 83rd Congress, 2nd Session (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1954)1192.

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